Climate is the effect in The Blockheads where a world has different environments standards in different areas. It differs from a biome in that climates are larger and more predictable based on location.
An arctic climate is found near one of the poles. Temperatures are cold, water is always frozen, and snow is common on exposed surfaces.
Bridging the gaps between the previous two regions are the temperate climates. Specifics will vary based on proximity to a pole or equator, but the full range of temperatures and weather are possible. Seasons are most obvious in temperate climates.